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人教版高中英语选修九 Unit 4 Reading教学课件


Unit 4 Exploring plants

1 Do you have a courtyard or some pot plants on your balcony? Do you know where these plants come from? Are they Chinese plants or do they come from another country?

When you last visited a public garden, did you look at the individual plants there? Were there any plants from other countries?

How do you think plants have traveled from one country to another?
Joseph Banks

Dr Nathaniel Ward

The Wardian case

Robert Fortune (1812-1880)

Robert Fortune represented the Horticultural Society of London (now the Royal Horticultural Society) as a collector in China shortly after the Treaty of Nanjing had brought the Opium War to a close. Through his use of the Wardian case, Fortune was able to introduce many of the best-known Chinese garden plants into cultivation in Europe and North America.

Pè re Paul Guillaume Farges (1844 - 1912)

French missionary and naturalist. Born at Monclar-de-Quercy, Tarn-et-Garonne. He was sent to China in 1867 and remained stationed in north-east Sichuan until 1903. Although he had always nurtured an interest in the local flora and fauna, it was not until 1892 that he started to collect herbarium specimens in earnest. During the eleven years before he moved south to Chongqing, he collected and preserved over 4,000 specimens.

Dove Tree

Ernest Henry Wilson (1876 - 1930)

Scan the title of the reading passage and the pictures and predict what it is about? Plant Exploration in the 18th And 19th centuries


T or F Questions:
1. The plants in our garden grew in China originally. F 2. The American Middle Classes took great interest in collecting new plants during the 18th and 19th centuries. F

3. French Catholic missionaries were beginning to set themselves up in China by the middle of the 18th century. T 4. After Father d’ Incarville died, some Tree of Heaven seeds were sent to England. F

5. Banks, together with James Cook, collected many examples of plants in Australia. T 6. Keeping plants alive during long land or sea voyage was very difficult, which caused the Wardian Case to be invented. T

7. Robert Fortune introduced over 120 species of plants to Western Gardens, because he could easily travel everywhere in China. F 8. During the second half of the 19th century, many Catholic missionaries were sent to China, and they collected many seeds of plants, which were sent back to France. T

Detailed reading:
Try to get the main idea of each paragraph: Para 1: explains when plant collecting began. Para 2: describes when and where plant collecting began on a large scale by Europeans. Para 3: talks about French Catholic missionaries who collected plants in China in the 18th century.

Para 4: is about the famous British plant collector, Sir Joseph Banks, who collected many new plants in Australia. Para 5: explains the problems of keeping plants alive on long trips. Para 6: describes an experiment carried out by Dr Nathaniel Ward who invented a glass case in which to transport plants on long journeys.

Para 7: is about Robert Fortune, a British plant collector who made several trips to China in the 19th century. Para 8: is about Father Farges, a French Catholic missionary who collected plants in China in the 19th century.

Para 9: Describes how many European plant collectors, such as E H Wilson, went to China so that new plants could be introduced to gardens in the West.

Part I: Para1-2 the beginning of plant collecting Part II: Para3-4 the exploration of plants in the 18th century Part III: Para 5-7 the invention and use of Wardian case Part IV: Para 8-9 the exploration of plants in the 19th centry

Answer these questions in group.
1 In l5OO BC, the Queen of Egypt sent ships to gather plants, animals and other goods. 2 In the 1740s, a French Catholic missionary called Father d'Incarville was sent to Beijing. 3 In1751, some Tree of Heaven seeds arrived in England.

4 In1769, Sir Joseph Banks collected vast quantities of plants in the land now known as Australia 5 In 1784, the Tree of Heaven was introduced into North America. 6 In 1833, Nathaniel Ward used two special cases that he had invented to ship British plants to Sydney,Australia.

7 Between 1843 and 1859, a British plant collector Robert Fortune. made several trips to China 8 During the second half of the nineteenth century, many Catholic missionaries were sent to China from France. 9 In 1897, a French Plant collector Father Farges. sent seeds of the Dover Tree from China to France.

10 In 1899, a Plant collector, E H Wilson. collected a large quantity of the seeds of the Dove Tree in China.

3 Answer these questions in groups. 1 Why was there a lot of plant collecting in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries? Europe has become interested in scientific discovery and European middle classes took great interest in collecting new plants this time.

2 how did French missionaries come to be plant collectors? They valued the study of the natural sciences and many of them knew allot about plants and animals.

3 What were some of the negative aspects of plant collecting expeditions? Negative aspects included disease, nearstarvation, severe environment, conflicts with the local people, plants dying during long trips or seeds failing to grow after long trips, pirates, bad weather, not knowing the local language and customs, etc.

4 Transporting plants over long distances was a big problem. Why was this? It was hard to keep them alive during long trips.
5 Why did many plants fail to reach their destinations alive? Can you think of any other reasons? The seeds of many plants failed to grow after long trip: plants were not looked

After properly during the trip. For example, one plant explorer lost his plants when they were waned with sea water. Other reasons include lack of fresh water, wrong environmental conditions, for instance, incorrect temperatures, salty air, and lack of sunlight and rain, etc, if the plants were transported inside the ship or train.

6 What improved the survival rates of plants transported long distances? It was the invention of the Wardian case.

Suppose three of you are botanists (植物学家), and one is a captain. Now each botanist wants the captain to bring his plant home. But the captain can take only one plant, so each must try his best to explain his reason to persuade the captain into taking his own plant.

1. date back to 追溯到; 始于 1 This town dates back to Roman times. 2 The castle dates back to the 14th century. 3 These societies dated as far back as a century.

date from 追溯到; 始于 1 The dress dates from the 19th century.

2 This custom dates from the 17th century.
3 My interest in stamp collecting dates from my schooldays. dated adj. 过时的; 陈旧的

2. conflict n.矛盾,分歧;冲突,斗争 1 It faces conflicts with the American

2 Nations mustn’t settle their difference by armed conflict. 3 At times personality conflicts develop between teachers and students.

a conflict of opinions / wills / interests in conflict (with) 1 These two lines are in conflict with each other. 2 Every one was aware that husband and wife were in conflict. 3 The twins are in conflict.

3. tightly 紧紧地, 满满地 1 Tie it as tightly as you can. 2 His arms were folded tightly. 3 He held me by the arm so tightly that it hurt.

tight adj. 紧; 绷紧; 拉紧
The coat looks tight. We hope to finish the task next week, but the schedule is a bit tight. tight adv. 紧地; 满地

Hold tight to the railing or you may
slip and fall.

4 restriction un. 限制 The park is open to the public without restriction. He dislikes their restriction of his

freedom of choice.

cn. 限制性规定 The restrictions on the use of the

play-ground: No fighting. No damaging

The government placed restrictions
on the numbers of foreign cars that

could be imported.

restrict vt. 限制, 控制 He feels this new law restrict his freedom.

The trees restricted our vision.
restricted adj. 有严格控制的, 局限的 restrictive adj. 限制性的

5. appeal vt. 吸引; 投合兴趣或爱好 How did the course appeal to you? These pictures don’t appeal to the children. 呼吁, 请求 appeal to sb. for help 1 He appealed to his friends for support. 2 The murderer appealed to the court for mercy.

Difficult sentences analysis
1 However,it was not until the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries that the exploration of the botanical world began on a large scale

然而,直到18和19世纪人们对植物 世界大规模的探索才开始。

It is/was not until.that…的意思是
“直到才 ”。如: It was not until the l880s that there were consistent experimental findings to support his theory. 直到19世纪80年代才有了一致的实验 发现支持他的理论。

另外,含有not until结构的句子也还可 以放在句首来表示强调,这时主旬用倒 装句。如: Not until 1 began to work did I realize how much time I had wasted. 直到开始工作时我才意识到自己浪费了 多少时间。

2 At that time, there were restrictions

on the movement of Europeans and so,
in order to travel unnoticed, he

developed his fluency in Chinese and dressed as a Chinese man, even shaving his head in the Chinese style.

那时候,欧洲人在中国的活动受 到种种限制,因此,为了在旅行 时不被别人注意,他努力使自己 的汉语讲得很流利,并且穿着中 国人的服装,甚至像中国人一样 削发(留辫)。

这是个并列句, At that time,
there were restrictions on the movement of Europeans是并列句 的第一部分, in order to travel unnoticed 是第二部分, 由and把


1. Retell the story to your partner. 2. Finish the exercises in your


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